My research concerns how people perceive themselves and others, particularly in moral matters, when interacting with individuals from other groups, and when responding to questionnaire items. Here are short descriptions of three projects that I’m involved in.
How do we come to the judgment that something is morally blameworthy or praiseworthy? How do we make decisions in moral matters? The project concerns moral cognition and we often use experimental methods to study how judgments and decisions are affected by contextual factors and interact with personality.
Agerström, J., & Björklund, F. (2009). Moral concerns are greater for temporally distant events and are moderated by value strength. Social Cognition, 27, 260–281.
Agerström, J., & Björklund, F. (2009). Temporal distance and moral concerns: Future immoral behavior is perceived as more wrong and evokes stronger prosocial intentions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1–11.
Björklund, F. (2003). Differences in the justification of choices in moral dilemmas: Effects of gender, time pressure and dilemma seriousness. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44, 459–466.
Björklund, F. (2004). Intuition and ex-post facto reasoning in moral judgment: Some experimental findings. In W. Rabinowicz & T. Rønnow-Rasmussen (Eds.), Patterns of value: Essays on formal axiology and value analysis (Vol. 2, pp. 36–50). Lund: Philosophy Reports.
Haidt, J., & Björklund, F. (2008). Social intuitionists answer six questions about moral psychology. W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral psychology (Vol 2). The cognitive science of morality: Intuition and diversity (pp. 181–217). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
How do stereotypes affect our view of ourselves and others? In this project we investigate how information on group membership affects trait judgments. Just as in the morality project described above we primarily work with social cognitive theories and experimental methods.
Björklund, F., Bäckström, M., & Jørgensen, Ø. (in press). In-group ratings are affected by who asks and how: Interactive effects of experimenter group-membership and accountability concerns. The Journal of Social Psychology.
Bäckström, M., & Björklund, F. (2007). Structural modeling of generalized prejudice: The role of social dominance, authoritarianism, and empathy. Journal of Individual Differences, 28, 10–17.
Carlsson, R., & Björklund, F. (2010). Implicit stereotype content: Mixed stereotypes can be measured with the Implicit Association Test. Social Psychology, 41, 213–222.
Gustafsson, U., & Björklund, F. (2008). Women self-stereotype with feminine stereotypical traits under stereotype threat. Current Research in Social Psychology, 13, 1–13.
Tellhed, U., & Björklund, F. (in press). Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.
What role does social desirability play in the measurement of personality, and how can we develop self-rating inventories that provide relatively “pure” measures of personality? The project involves basic research on social desirability and test development, and applied research on e.g. selection and recruitment.
Bäckström, M., Björklund, F., & Larsson, M. (2009). Five-factor inventories have a major higher order factor related to social desirability which can be reduced by framing items neutrally. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 335–344.
Bäckström, M., Björklund, F., & Larsson, M. (in press). Social desirability in personality assessment: Outline of a model to explain individual differences. In M. Ziegler, C. McCann, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.) New perspectives on faking in personality assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bäckström, M., & Björklund, F. (submitted). Item popularity is clearly related to social desirability and faster responses in graded self ratings of the Big Five.